History of the Bell Place

 

The land which the Bell Place occupies was originally inhabited by Native Americans.[1]  The earliest recorded tribal occupation is by the Algonquin; the Ottawas lived in the Saginaw Basin.  These gradually assimilated to the Ojibwa to the west and south; it was Ojibwa land when white men first came.  By the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Sauks were the tribe which apparently lived in the area of the Bell Place, as they inhabited the upper reaches and tributaries of the Tittabawassee River.  In a war of extermination, so tradition has it, the Ojibwa and their allies destroyed the Sauks.  It was the Ojibwa whom white men first encountered in the area.[2]

            The Indian land was gradually ceded to the United States government.  First the area around Detroit went in 1795; in 1807 another treaty followed which ceded much of what is not Michigan.  This treaty, however, did not include the land of the Saginaw Valley.  … Cass was put in charge of fixing this.  After a negotiation which lasted ten days, he had a signed treaty with Ojibwa leaders which handed over the Saginaw Valley, including the tributaries of the Tittabawasee.  The Ojibwa were sent to reservations, first near Flint and then in Isabella Country.  The Indians continued their hunting, fishing, and gathering even as the white man tried to acculturate them through training schools and apprenticeships.  Bob Herrick, great-grandson of ‘Old Jim’ Herrick, tells of family recollections of small groups of Indians still in the early twentieth century roaming up and down the Tobacco River where the Bell Place is located.  This corresponds to that Forrest Meek reports:

“Early settlers of Clare county were frequently visited by transients such as John Okemos, son of the legendary Chief Okemos who died in 1859.  The Carey family of Frost Township hosted small bands each spring as they passed through toward Houghton Lake and homesteaders along the Tobacco River also became friends of the vagabonds.  Many other Clare County families had warm friendships with these itinerants, and looked forward to seeing the roving bands who normally traveled on foot, renewing their acquaintances.”[3]

Meek gives the Indian name for the Tobacco River, upon which the Bell Place sits, as Samaquasebing or Assemoqua.[4]  Both names are in essence the same.  According to Professor Richard Rhodes, a scholar of the Ojibwa language, ‘Tobacco River’ is

“a gloss of the Ojibwe name. Both names [Samaquasebing/Assemoqua] contain the Ojibwe root for 'tobacco'. Assemoqua is asemaakwe 'Tobacco Woman" and Samaquasebing is asemaakwe-ziibiing "Tobacco Woman River". Nothing is particularly unusual about either of the transcriptions. a is used ambiguously to transcribe short a, long a, and e (a long mid to low front vowel). The loss of short vowels in unstressed positions is around in that area (like Pinconning, pinkaaning < older opinakaaning), so the missing first vowel in Samaquasebing is not a problem. The only hesitation is that e is rarely used to transcribe the front mid vowel, as in Assemoqua. But the two words are too similar.”

Thus the modern name mimics the Indian name for the river.

            From the early days of settlement in the Northwest Territory, the interior and, especially, the northern part of Michigan covered in pine forest, was considered uninhabitable because of the swamps and dense forest.  Settlement concentrated along the southern tier of the State.  At admission to the Union in 1837, virtually no settlement by white men had taken place in the area.  In 1840 a concerted effort was made to survey.  Kay Ka Kee County, named by famed naturalist and ethnographer Henry Schoolcraft (1783-1864) after an otherwise unknown Sauk chieftain, Pidgeon Hawk, was formed from sixteen, six mile by six mile square townships: townships 17-20  North; ranges 3-6 West; the townships themselves had been surveyed by Michigan Chief Deputy Surveyor, Henry Nicholson in 1837-1839.  In 1843 the Michigan Legislature renamed the County ‘Clare.[5]  But it was not until 1870-71 that the first political townships were organized in that area: the eastern part was detached administratively from Midland County and the western from Mecosta County.  Sheridan Township, named after the Civil War general, was officially formed in 1870; it encompassed the entire eastern range of the County (Range 3 West, Towns 17-20).  The first Township supervisors were Solomon Oles, David Smalley, and Henry Pierce.    David Smalley lived about a mile and a half west of The Bell Place on what is now Colonville Road.[6]

 

The first Bell deed: 1854

 

The United States of America.

To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

 

Whereas, In pursance of the Act of Congress approved September 28th, 1850, entitled “An Act granting Bounty Land to certain Officers and Soldiers who have been engaged in the Military Service of the United States,” Warrant no. 2351 for 160 acres, issued in favor of Martin Page and John Page Minor children of Stephen Page Deceased Private in captain Treat’s company twenty first Regiment United States Infantry, War 1812 has been returned to the GENERAL LAND OFFICE, with evidence that the same has been duly located upon the Southwest quarter of the Section twenty two in Township Seventeen North of Range three west in the District of Lands Subject to Sale at Ionia Michigan containing one hundred and sixty acres according to the Official Plat of Survey of the said Lands returned to the GENERAL LAND OFFICE by the  SURVEYOR GENERAL: which has been assigned to Charles Merrill.  Now Know Ye, That there is therefore granted by the UNITED STATES unto the said Charles Merrill the tract of land above describes:  TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the said tract of Land, with the appurtenances thereof, unto the said Charles Merrill and to his heirs and assigns forever.  In Testimony Whereof, J. Franklin Pierce, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, have [sic] caused these Letters to be made Patent, and the Seal of the General Land Office to be hereunto affilxed.  Given under my hand, at the City of Washington, the first day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty four and of the Independence of the United States the seventy-eighth by BY THE PRESIDENT Franklin Pierce By Ino[?] H. Wheeler asst Sec’y. [strike through replaces with “By C. C. Buloouife” [illegible]], N. Granger [or Geanger] Recorder of the General Land Office.

(Stamp: Department of the Interior General Land Office Washington, D.C., June 9 1944 .  I hereby certify that this photograph is a true copy of the patent record which is in my custody in this office.  Jas. F. Homer Acting Chief, Patents Division)

 

July 1, 1854: Copy of a Warrant assigning the Bell Place land to Charles Merrill.

September 28, 1850 Congress passed “An Act granting Bounty Land to certain Officers and Soldiers who have been engaged in the Military Service of the United States.”  Warrant no. 23151 for 160 acres was issued to Martin Page and John Page, minor children of Stephen Page deceased, a private who had served with Captain [Joseph] Treats[7] company twenty first regiment US infantry[8] in the War of 1812.

 

Stephen Page[9]

He is something of a mystery.  The War of 1812 database indexes approximately 40,000 names appearing in __Pay Rolls of Militia Entitled to Land Bounty Under the Act of Congress of Sept. 28, 1850__ (Richmond, 1851) and __Muster Rolls of the Virginia Militia in the War of 1812__ (Richmond, 1852) which supplements Pay Rolls.

The supplement contains the Companies and parts of Companies which were omitted in the Pay Rolls. Both volumes were copied from rolls in the office of the Auditor of Public Accounts in Richmond. Stephen Page does not appear in this listing; nor does Martin or John…(Source: http://ajax.lva.lib.va.us/F/?func=file&file_name=find-b-clas12&local_base=CLAS12)

However, Stephen Page—or some War of 1812 veteran with his same name—does appear as the recipient of bounty land in Illinois, one of the areas originally assigned as bounty land for veterans of the War of 1812.  The land is in Frederik Township of Schuyler County, Illinois.  Source:  http://www.rootsweb.com/~ilschuyl/Fredericktwp.html

This is the smallest township in the county, containing only twelve full sections, although there are several fractional ones joining the Illinois river and Sugar creek, which form the eastern boundary line. The greater part of the land is in T. 1 N. R. 1 E., with that part of T. 2 N., R. 1 E, that is west of Sugar creek as far north as the south line of section 7. Its greatest length is about ten miles and the greatest width three and a half miles. It is bounded north, east and south by Browning township and the Illinois River respectively, and west by Bainbridge and Rushville. The surface is broken, with the exception of a narrow strip of Illinois bottom. The soil is rich and productive. In the census of 1880, it is credited with having 38 farms and 490 population including the town.

Military Claims

These lands were all subjected to military claims, by the soldiers of the war of 1812, and the following are a few that were located in T. 1 N. R. 1 E.: December 3, 1817, Halzen Richardson, N. E. 1/4 section 6, and William Bartlett, N. W. 1/4 of a section 6 on the same date. December 17, 1817, Francis Hutchison, N. E. 1/4 of section 18; January 27, 1818, William Anderson, N. W. 1/4 of section 9; August 4, 1818, Stephen Page, N. W. 1/4 of section 17, and March 24, 1818, John Glass, S. W. 1/4 of section 14.

The record of this Stephen Page’s acquisition appears in Illinois Public Land Purchase Records:

PAGE STEPHEN Section: NW Price: 00000 Total: 0000000 Date: 04 August 1818 Volume: 808 Page: 513 Type: MT Sect: 17 Township: 01N Range: 01E Meridian: 4 Acres: 016000 Corr-Tag: 0 ID: 579352 SocStat: Blank: W Reside: 000[10]

Were the heirs of Stephen Page ‘double dipping’ when it came time to claim War of 1812 Bounty land under new legislation of 1851? 

These heirs, John and Martin, were under 21 in 1854, when the warrant was issued.  Therefore, their father must have fathered the older in 1832-33 or later.  If Stephen was a private in the War of 1812, he must have been at least ~eighteen years of age.  That would make him ~38 at the youngest at the birth of his oldest son.

 

An Elizabeth Shepard married a Stephan Page in Caswell County, NC, 0n 11 January, 1832.  This Stephan Page was 49 in 1850; his wife, Elizabeth, was 48.  Therefore he was not old enough to have served in the War of 1812.  In addition, he has no children named John or Martin.[11]

 

The Bounty System.

Bounty Land Warrants for Military Service in the War of 1812

by Jan Bishop McFarland

http://users.rcn.com/deeds/bounty.htm

After the War of 1812, Congress enacted legislation to reward military service by entitling veterans to claim land in the northwest and western territories. This so-called "bounty land" was not granted outright to the veterans, but was instead awarded to them through a multi-step process beginning with a bounty land warrant.

Bounty land warrants weren't automatically issued to every veteran who served. The veteran first had to apply for a warrant, and then, if the warrant was granted, he could use the warrant to apply for a land patent. The land patent is the document which granted him ownership of the land.

Basically, the warrant is a piece of paper which states that, based on his service, the veteran is entitled to X number of acres in one of the bounty land districts set up for veterans of the War of 1812. These land districts were located on public domain lands in Arkansas, Illinois and Missouri.

The warrants, themselves, were not delivered to the veterans; all the veteran actually received was a notification telling him that Warrant #XXX had been issued in his name and was on file in the General Land Office.

Prior to 1842, if a veteran chose to redeem his warrant for land, he was required to choose land in one of the three states listed above. (After 1842, he could redeem his warrant for public lands in other states.)  Warrants could be assigned or sold to other individuals.

Benjamin Hibbard, an American public lands historian, believed that the government chose to set the land districts up in these frontier areas because they thought it would be really nifty to have a few thousand battle-hardened war veterans & their families acting as buffers between established settlements and the Native American population. For good or for ill, the veterans were too smart to fall for that one, and most chose to sell their patents to land speculators. So keep in mind that, even if your ancestor applied for a patent, he may never have set foot on his land.

The Bounty Land Warrant File

A veteran who decided to redeem his warrant was issued a patent for the land itself, and a "Bounty Land Warrant File" was created in the General Land Office. This file contains the surrendered warrant, a letter of assignment (if he assigned his interest to another party) and any other documents pertaining to the transaction. The warrant itself should include the name of the veteran, his rank on discharge, his branch of service (including company, etc.), and the date the warrant was issued. It may also include the date the land was located and a description of the land.

If he obtained bounty land, you should be able to find your ancestor in National Archives Microfilm Series M848 (14 rolls), War of 1812 Military Bounty Land Warrants, 1815-1858. This series includes an index to patentees in Missouri & Arkansas, a partial index for Illinois, and an index for patentees under the 1842 act (the one that allowed them to choose lands in areas other than MO, AR & IL). If you find that he patented his land, and you want more information than is contained on the microfilm, you may be able to obtain it by writing the National Archives and having them search the General Land Office abstracts of military bounty land warrant locations.

Further Reading

Throughout the 1800's, the US Congress continually tinkered with the laws affecting bounty land; in order to fully understand these laws and how they may have affected your ancestor, further study will be required. If you're interested in learning more about bounty lands, I'd recommend you read James W. Oberly's book, Sixty Million Acres: American Veterans and the Public Lands before the Civil War, ISBN 0-87338-421-0. It's full of valuable information for genealogists. And if you're up for some really dry reading (downright parched, some might say!), try Benjamin Hibbard's History of the Public Land Policies.

Another helpful source is Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives, ISBN 0-911333-01-0. It explains, in detail, the records available through the National Archives, including bounty land records.

Bounty Warrants were sold en masse.  It is not clear to me how this was done, but presumably agents bought these up and then resold them.  The Warrant holder would get a price per acre; one example of $1.  The end-purchaser would then present the Warrant with a land description of appropriate land, i.e., land available under the Warrant’s conditions, at a land office; in Michigan in the 1850’s and 60’s this was at Ionia.  A Patent would then be issued to the Warrant holder as proof of possession of the property.

 

Patent of July 1, 1854 (Document no. 1).

The Warrant transfers the land to Charles Merrill: S[outh]W[est]/4 [¼] of Sec[tion] 22, Town 17 N[orth], R[ange] 3 W[est].

Charles Merrill was a lumberman from Maine.  Born in 1792, he lived for almost a century, dying in 1881; his main domicile was Detroit.  Like many others from New England, he moved his operations west to Michigan as the lumbering in the northeast slowed down.  He arrived as early as 1835 in Port Huron and was buying pine land in the Clare Isabella area by 1853.  In many cases, the land came to him through the use at Ionia of purchased bounty warrants such as that of Stephen Page’s heirs. There is no indication of what amount Merrill paid to the heirs of Stephen Page to get the land assigned to him.  In 1864-65 David Ward (see below) paid one dollar an acre for Bounty Warrant land.[12]

 

Looking for Pine on the Bell Place

David Ward (1822-1900) was a pine lands explorer in his younger days.  Between 1850 and 1854 he was employed by many of the men who bought up pine lands in Isabella and Clare County and, specifically, owned the Bell Place at one time or another: Newell Avery, Col. Eddy, Charles Merrill, and Deacon Barnard.[13] In 1851 he went up the Tobacco River 12 miles; this would be to the area of Beaverton or a bit beyond.[14]  In 1852 he explored the south branch of the Tobacco River, where the Bell Place stands:

In the early part of April, 1852, we moved from my father-in-law's by sleigh to Port Huron, Henry being then some six monts old. We occupied a small, one-story frame house with only three rooms which I had purchased with a small lot it stood on, for two hundred and seventy-five dollars. A few days after our arrival in Port Huron, I left home with John Bailey and Frenchman, to assist in packing, to explore pine lands on the headwaters of Cass River. The streams were high and the swamps were full of water from heavy spring rains and melted snow. However, we succeeded in finding and selecting some twelve lots of very fine cork pine after an absence of seventeen days. In the early part of May following John Bailey and I left for the headwaters of Pine River in Saginaw. We commenced to explore where Mellen and I left off in the previous January on account of the cold weather, deep snow and my rheumatism. In a few days we found and selected twenty-five eighty-acre lots of a very fine quality of cork pine. My first lumbering was done in 1857, '58 and '59 on a part of this tract. We then returned rapidly down Pine River in a canoe to the forks of the Chipaway, and after poling the canoe up the Chipaway some twenty miles we then "footed it" through the forest for fifty or sixty miles up that river to about thirty miles above what is now called Mt. Pleasant. We found and selected twenty-six lots more on that stream of nine cork pine, and then returned home as rapidly as possible, having travelled by canoe two hundred and fifty miles in looking out the pine and in going up and down the Pine, Chipaway and Tittabawassee river, and were absent from Port Hudson only nineteen days. My commission-share of these fifty-one lots selected on this trip was one fifth,or a fraction over ten lots. I bore all the expense of looking up and buying the lands, the purchase money only being furnished by the patrons.

In July I made another trip, my brother Nathan accompanying me. On this trip I followed to its source the Big Salt River, a lower western branch of the Tittabawassee, and continued west until we came to the main Chipaway, and then followed the same down on its north side to the present site of Mt. Pleasant, selecting on the way ten lots of fine cork pine, three to four being the present site of Mt. Pleasant. These lands I bought with my own money, and eventually lumbered them twenty-eight or thirty years ago.

In August following I started from Ionia north through the woods to Pine River with Amasa Rust, through the pineries I had previously looked up. We found only a few scattering forties. One evening on our return, the moon shining bright, we travelled until one o'clock in the morning making eleven or twelve miles through the dense forest after dark. We struck a new settler's clearing of five acres, the farthest clearing back in the forest. From there we went on and looked over some five thousand acres for Charles Merrill, being paid wages by the day for the work. The three Rust boys went with me more or less in looking pine lands for them. Alony died about twenty-two years ago David eleven or twelve years, and Amasa a few days ago. At the time they accompanied me the three were stout, healthy men. They all lived to be men of large property.

Afterwards I went with James H. Bacon to Mackinaw Island, and sailed in a fishing boat across to the mouth of Pine River on the Upper Peninsula. We spent seven days in following up the river through a continuous windfall, the forest being all turned up by the roots. We crawled over and under hedges of fallen trees, not making over three miles each day, in order to reach or cork pinery said to be near the headwaters of Pine River. Finally becoming discouraged we retraced our steps to Mackinaw, and from Mackinaw Island we sailed over the Cheboygan, them by a sail-skiff up Mullet and Burt Lakes and Maple River, but did not find enough cork pine, as I judged, to be worth looking out. Consequently, we returned home without selecting any land, and our expenses and labor were all lost.

Hoping to repair the losses of this trip I went with Bacon in the latter part of November and followed up the main southern branch of the Tobacco River which is a western branch of the Tittabawassee. This trip was prolonged into the middle of December, notwithstanding the snow-water and slush we had to wade through two thirds of the time, as the country was largely composed of swamps and swales interspersed with low pine ridges. We succeeded in selecting a fair number of lots of very good bull sap and cork pine. While passing down the Tittabawassee in our canoe on our return and when some five miles above where Midland now is, I was shot at by an Indian secreted behind a tree on the river bank. The ball struck the water close to where I sat. This was the only attack I ever received from the Indians, and thus ended my pine exploring efforts for the year 1852.[15]

He then lumbered the area in 1860-1875.  Certainly it was during this period that The Bell Place land was cleared.  The Kaul farm, not too far away, was cleared by 1889—but stumps and brush remained.[16]  Probably that was the state of the Bell property when Thomas first bought it.

 

 

Quit-claim Deed[17] of February 14, 1859 (Document no. 1½).

Charles Merrill and wife Frances P. to Edwin Eddy.

Undivided ½ interest in SW/4 of Sec. 22, Town 17 N.R. 3 West.

$1,100.

Edwin Eddy was a lumberman from Maine.  He was from Bradley in Penobscot County, just as the Averys were.  In 1860 he is still there, with wife Celia and five children.  His real worth is $4,800.[18]  By 1870 he and his family are in East Saginaw; he is worth $43,000 in real and $47,000 in personal property.  He is living next to Sewell Avery, another lumberman.[19]  In 1880 he remains in East Saginaw, with Sewell Avery still his neighbor.[20]  He is apparently deceased by the time of the 1900 Census.

 

Quit-claim Deed of January 20, 1864 (No. 3)

Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W. to Jonathan Eddy, Newell Avery, and Edwin Eddy.

An undivided 3/8 part of SW/4 of Sec. 22, Town 17 N.R. 3 West. 

$995.55.

 

Warranty Deed[21] of October 12, 1864 (No. 2)

Charles Merrill and his wife Frances P. sell ‘½ interest’ in property encompassing the Bell Place property to Jonathan Eddy, S.J. Murphy, Newell Avery, and Edwin Eddy (SW/4 [i.e., 160 acres] of Sec. 22, T 17 N R 3 W) for a consideration of $6309.65

Jonathan Eddy & Edwin Eddy.  The Eddy family was one of the early speculators in pine in Clare County.[22]

S[imon]. J[ones]. Murphy was another lumberman/pine lands speculator.  He was born in Maine and got his start in lumbering there.  In the 1860 Census he is listed as in Bangor Maine and a ‘lumber merchant’; his worth is $5,000 in real and $10,000 in other property.[23]  In Michigan, he lived in Detroit and was a neighbor there of the Averys.[24]  His wife was Ann W.; his son, Simon J. Murphy, Jr. (1851-1926), went on to be Mayor of Green Bay, Wisconsin, after extensive lumbering in that area.[25]  Today’s Pacific Lumber Company is the direct descendent of S. J. Murphy’s lumber empire.

Newell Avery.  The Averys were also pine speculators.  Newell (born ~1819) appears in the 1850 Census living in Bradley, Penobscot, Maine; his birthplace is Maine.  His career is listed as ‘lumberman’.  He is married to Nancy C. (see Deed of April 12, 1879) (born ~1825 in Maine); their children in 1850 were Edward, Darius, Lenora, and Clara (Clarissa in 1860).[26]  In 1860 he is in Michigan: Port Huron, St. Clair County.  He children have increased by Nancy, George, John, and Horace; Lenora is no longer listed.  Real property worth is at $60,000.  He is listed as a lumberman. [27]  By 1870 Newell and family were living in Detroit.  His real worth is now $100,000.  Children are Clara, Nancy, George, John, Horace, Nellie, and Harry.  George, Horace, Harry, and Nellie were all born in Michigan.  His profession remains ‘lumberman’.[28]   By 1880 Newell is dead; Nancy is living in Detroit with three of the children: Clara, Nellie, and John.[29]  Newell died in 1877; his will is probated on April 11, 1877; this distributes his property evenly among his eight children: Edward, Darius, Clara, Nancy, George, John, Horace, and Nellie; the executrix is Nancy C. (Documert no. 6). 

 

Guardians Deed of April 30, 1867 (Document no. 4). 

One of the deed holders of Deed No. 2 has died.

Edwin Eddy, Guardian of Frederick A. Eddy, John F. Eddy, Charles F. Eddy, & Newell A. Eddy, minor heirs of Jonathan Eddy, dec’d., sells to Newell Avery, and Simon J. Murphy Jonathan’s share, 1/6th of SW/4 of Sec. 22, Town 17 N.R. 3 West.  This leaves Merrill with .125 of the interest and Messers. E. Eddy, N. Avery, and S.J. Murphy with the rest.

S.J. Murphy, Newell Avery, and Edwin Eddy

$36.00.

This 1/6th (i.e., 26.7 acres) was sold at public auction on December17, 1866.  So the remaining land of the 160 acres was 133.3 acres.

 

Quit-claim Deed of January 1, 1868. (Document no. 5)

Newell Avery and wife Nancy C. and S.J. Murphy, and wife Ann W. sell to Sewell Avery ‘with other lands an undivided ¼ part of the land’ in SW/4 of Sec. 22, Town 17 N.R. 3 West.  Consideration: $1680.67

 

Last Will and Testament of Newell Avery (Document no. 6).

Written August 28, 1865; probated April 1, 1877.

 

Power of Attorney of April 12, 1879 (Document no. 7)

After the death of Newell Avery (his will of August 28, 1865  is Document no. 6)  the division of his property among his children ensued.  Probate is completed on April 11, 1877.  Two of the children, Horace and Clara, gave Power of Attorney to the mother, Nancy C. by this document.

 

Quit-claim Deed of May 22, 1879 (Document no. 8)

Edwin Eddy, Sewell Avery, John F. Eddy, Simon J. Murphy deed the land to Nancy C. Avery, widow of Newell Avery, and their children, and redistribute the ownership of the rest of the property.  Land is transferred as follows:

(1) From

(1) Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.,

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.,

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(4) Simon J. Murphy & wife Ann M.

To Nancy Avery

Edward O Avery

Darius N. Avery

Clara A. Avery

Nancy M. Avery George E. Avery John H. Avery Horace W. Avery Nellie J. Avery

4/12 parts of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

(2) From

(1) From Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.,

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To Simon J. Murphy

1/6*

(3) From

(1) Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.

(4) Simon J. Murphy & Wife Ann M.

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To John F. Eddy

1/6 part

(4) From

(1) Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(4) Simon J. Murphy & wife Ann M.

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To Sewell Avery

¼ part

(5) From

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.,

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(4) Simon J. Murphy & wife Ann M.

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To Edwin Eddy

¼ part

TOTAL

 

1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 + ¼ + ¼ = 1

*Transferred by the next deed to Nancy Avery and children.

Edwin Eddy and Sewell Avery were neighbors in Detroit per the 1880 Census.  Sewell Avery was from Maine, as was Newell; their exact relationship is unclear to me, but by age, they were probably brothers.  Sewell is listed as a lumberman, as is Newell.  He had come to Michigan by 1857 because a daughter, Lula, was 23 years old in 1880 and had been born in Michigan.[30]  In 1870 he is living in East Saginaw with his family.  A son, Waldo, is listed as a ‘lumber inspector’—this person was an investigator of pine theft from public lands.[31]  Sewell’s real property was valued at $43,000 and his personal property at $38,000. [32] 

 

Quit-claim Deed of June 2, 1879 (Document no. 9)

This deed transfers the 1/6 interest of Simon J. Murphy to the Avery family, divided as follows:

From

Simon J. Murphy and (by purchase) Harry E. Avery

To

Nancy C. Avery

Darius N. Avery

Clara A. Avery

Nancy M. Avery

George E. Avery

John H. Avery

Horace W. Avery

Nellie J. Avery

Edward O. Avery

 

8/27

2/24 of 8/27

2/24 of 8/27

2/24 of 8/27

2/24 of 8/27

2/24 of 8/27

2/24 of 8/27

2/24 of 8/27

13/108 of 8/27

 

= 64/216

= 18/216

= 18/216

= 18/216

= 18/216

= 18/216

= 18/216

= 18/216

= 26/216

TOTAL

 

 

= 216/216 = 1/6 of property

 

 

Guardians Deed of June 17, 1879 (Document no. 10)

This deed transfers Harry E. Avery his share through action by his Guardian, his mother, Nancy C. Avery, to his siblings for a consideration of $4585, as follows:

From

Harry E. Avery*

To**

Darius N. Avery

Clara A. Avery

George E. Avery

John H. Avery

Horace W. Avery

Nellie J. Avery

Edward O. Avery

 

5/12

1/12

1/12

1/12

1/12

1/12

1/12

TOTAL

 

11/12

*I don’t see how Harry E. Avery has any share in the property; it seems to have been conveyed to the rest of the Avery family in Deed Document no. 9 above.

**Note that Nancy M. Avery is not listed in this Deed; she was in Document no. 9 above.  This may be a mistake, as the 1/12 portions add up to only 11/12ths.  Note also that Nancy M., now Skinner, appears as one of the eight heirs in Document no. 11.

 

Quit-claim Deed of November 1, 1879) (Document no. 11)

Darius N. Avery conveys to this mother, Nancy C. Avery, 4/108 (= 8/216) interest in the property for a consideration of $1.  From Deeds Documents no. 9 and no. 10, Darius should own (18/216 of 1/6) + (5/12 of X) =

According to Quit-claim Deed of November 5, 1879 (Document no. 12), combined with evidence of Document no. 10, each of the eight children-heirs owns 4/108 of the property:

Darius N. Avery

Clara A. Avery

George E. Avery

John H. Avery

Horace W. Avery

Nellie J. Avery

Edward O. Avery

Nancy M. [Avery] Skinner

This accounts for 32/108 or 8/27 of the property.

 

Quit-claim Deed of November 5, 1879 (Document no. 12)

Corrects a typographical error, which conveyed 41/108 to Nancy C. Avery from Darius N. Avery, to 4/108 and seems to reconvey that 4/108 back to Darius N.

 

Warranty Deed of January 1, 1881 (Document no. 13).

Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W., John F. Eddy & wife Lottie deed their share, ¼ + 1/6 = 5/12 (see Document no. 8), to the Averys.  Consideration: $117.09.

From

Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W. and John F. Eddy & wife Lottie H.

To

Nancy C. Avery

Darius N. Avery

Clara A. Avery

George E. Avery

John H. Avery

Horace W. Avery

Nellie J. Avery

Edward O. Avery

 

4/12 of 5/12

1/12 of 5/12

1/12 of 5/12

1/12 of 5/12

2/12 of 1/12

1/12 of 5/12

1/12 of 5/12

1/12 of 5/12

TOTAL

 

12/12 of 5/12

This transfer completes the ownership of the property in the hands of the Averys.

From the division in Document no. 8 the following has transpired:

(1) From

(1) Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.,

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.,

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(4) Simon J. Murphy & wife Ann M.

To Nancy Avery

Edward O Avery

Darius N. Avery

Clara A. Avery

Nancy M. Avery George E. Avery John H. Avery Horace W. Avery Nellie J. Avery

4/12 parts of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

1/12 of 1/6

Ownership retained by Averys

(2) From

(1) From Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.,

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To Simon J. Murphy

1/6*

Transferred to Averys in Document no. 9

(3) From

(1) Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.

(4) Simon J. Murphy & Wife Ann M.

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To John F. Eddy

1/6 part

Transferred to Averys in Document no. 13

(4) From

(1) Edwin Eddy & wife Celia W.

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(4) Simon J. Murphy & wife Ann M.

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To Sewell Avery

¼ part

Retains ownership

(5) From

(2) Sewell Avery & wife Eliza H.,

(3) John F. Eddy & wife Lottie W.,

(4) Simon J. Murphy & wife Ann M.

(5) Flora T. – Elizabeth H. & Fannie E.

To Edwin Eddy

¼ part

Transferred to Averys in Document no. 13

TOTAL

 

1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 + ¼ + ¼ = 1

 

Thus Nancy C. Avery, the Avery children, and Sewell Avery own the entire property.

 

Warranty Deed of July 16, 1881 (Document no. 14)

Sewell Avery, Nancy Avery, and children sell “only the S/2 of SW/4 of Section 22, Township 17 North, Range 3 West”  to Thomas Pritchard.  This should be 80 acres, there being 160 acres in a section quarter.  Consideration is $320. [This is the land from which ultimately will come the Bell Place—see Document no. 22.)

 

Warranty Deed of December 15, 1882 (Document no. 15)

Thomas G. Pritchard deeds the S/2 of SW/4 of Section 22, Township 17 North, Range 3 West to Newell Barnard.  The consideration is $600, almost twice what Prichard paid for the land in 1881.  Newell Barnard was a lumberman from New Hampshire.   He was married to Catherine I. Barnard, origin West Indies (1880 Census), but listed in 1860 as from New Hampshire as well.  There children were Lillian (age 2) (listed as Lelia in 1880), Arthur (age 4), and …: 1860 Census.[33]  In that year his real and personal property was valued at $50,000.  In 1885 his daughter, Lelia (= Lillian) ceded to brother Arthur real estate valued at $20,000 in the State of Michigan.  Newell and Catherine lived in Saginaw.  He was a lumberman who had come to take advantage of opportunities in Michigan.[34]

***************************************

The following documents indicate that Newell Barnard was active in land purchases in the SW/4 of Section 22.  The portion that will be sold to Thomas Bell in 1891.  The question is, how does this land and these tranactions relate to the Charles Merrill-to-Averys land deals ending at Document no. 15?  Thomas Pritchard, who purchased the S/2 of SW/4 of Section 22 on July 16, 1881 (Document no. 14) sells this to Newell Barnard on December 15, 1882 (Document no. 15).  However, Newell Barnard is already mortgaging property from SW/4 of Section 22 on November 8, 1875! (Document no. 16).  And he is dead by 1877 (Document no. 43).

 

Mortgage of November 8, 1875 (Document no. 16).

Newell Barnard and his wife Catherine mortgage SW/4 of Section 22, along with other land they own which is not denominated here, for $70,000 to William W[allace] Crapo (1830-1918).  It is not clear to me what land this might be; the abstract states, “Mortgages with other lands the entire SW/4 of Sec. 22”.

Crapo was the son of Henry Howland Crapo (1804-1869), a powerful Flint lumberman who had begun to purchase pine lands in 1855; he was Governor of Michigan as a Republican in 1864-1868.[35]  W.W. Crapo seems to have spent his entire career in New Bedford, Massachusetts, where he was born and became a successful industrialist, and which he represented in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1875-1883.  He however kept his hand in Michigan business.  He co-founded the Genesee Country Savings Bank in Flint in 1872 and owned a lumber mill there, and was President of the Flint and Marquette Railroad, among other things.  He may even have spent time in Michigan after the death of his father, as he managed the family estate in Gaines Township, Genesee County, upon the latter’s death.[36]  This mortgage indicates that he invested in land as well. 

 

Notice of Lis Pendens (suit for foreclosure) of September 30, 1881 (Document no. 17)

In 1881 Crapo moved to foreclose on the land: noticed as defendants are, in addition to Newell & Catherine Barnard, are William & Sophia Binder, John L. Barnard, and Abel A. Brockway. But abstract states, “NOTE-The Descriptions of [Document] 1a [i.e.,Document no. 1½: “an undivided one half (1/2) interest in and to the SW/4 of Sec. 22, Town 17 N.R.3 W”] are mentioned, and among others, certain land in section 22, 17-3 W, but no part of the SW/4 is mentioned.” This doesn’t make a lot of sense to me unless the detail description in the Notice does not, in fact, mention any specific part of the SW/4 noted in Document 1½. That would make some sense, as otherwise this document would reference property seemingly owned by the Averys, per all the documents preceding no. 16.

William and Sophia Binder, from Prussia, are listed in the 1860 Census; he as a ‘stave maker’; they live in Saginaw.  She is listed in the 1880 Census in Oregon.  They are well off: the 1860 Census lists them as having $4,000 in real and $10,000 in other property.  John L. Barnard may be related to Newell and Catherine I. Barnard, but is listed separately in the 1880 Census.  He is listed as a lumberman in Saginaw in the 1880 Census.   We know little of Abel A. Brockway.  He was born in New York State about 1819 and lived in Saginaw with his family in 1880.[37]

 

Assignment of Mortgage of December 4, 1882 (Document no. 18).

W.W. Crapo assigns his mortgage to Abel A. Brockway, one of the persons noticed in the foreclosure suit of Document no. 17. Consideration: $1.

Quit-claim Deed of July 16, 1885 (Document no. 19)

Abel A. Brockway and wife Rozet deeds the land to Arthur Barnard, the son of Newell Barnard, who died sometime before May 12, 1884 (Document no. 20).

 

Probate of May 12, 1884 (Document no. 20).

Probate of Newell Barnard’s will, leaving all to this two children, Lelia Barnard and Arthur Barnard.

Lelia Barnard (~1859-?) was the daughter of Newell (born in New Hampshire) and Catherine I. Barnard (born in West Indies): 1880 Census.  As daughter, was the only child listed at home in Saginaw, MI in 1880.[38]  Newell died on March 13, 1877 (Document no. 43).  Arthur Barnard was married to Mary E. Barnard (see Deed of June 1, 1891).  He is the brother of Lelia Barnard and son of Newell & Catherine I. Barnard (Mortgage of November 8, 1875, Document no. 16, and Probate of May 12, 1884, Document no. 20) and so the brother of Lelia; they are the only two children of Newell and Catherine.  This is most likely the Arthur and Mary E. Barnard who appear in the 1880 Census in Center, Union County, Indiana.[39]

 

Quit-claim Deed of February 16, 1885 (Document no. 21)

Lelia Barnard, the other child of Newell Barnard along with Arthur, deeds any and all real estate she owns, including what came to her from the estate of her father, to Arthur for a consideration of $20,000.

 

Warranty Deed of June 1, 1891 (Document no. 22)

Arthur Barnard and wife Mary E. “conveys all that part of the south half (S/2) of Section 22, Town 17 North, Range 3 West, lying North and West of the Tobacco River” to Thomas Bell.  Consideration: $350.

This Deed is recorded on 8 am on June 6, 1891, the exact time at which Thomas Bell mortgages the land for $300 to George Serviss (Document no. 24).

The Deed goes on to state, “Taxes or assessments since May 10, 1887, excepted from warranty.”  I believe that this means that the taxes owed on the property from May 10, 1887 are not covered by the transfer of the property; the new owner is responsible for them.  If this is so, then logically, Thomas Bell occupied the property from May 10, 1887 and now that he is gaining ownership, the legal owner, Arthur Barnard, is stating that he must pay the taxes on the property from that date.

 

The Bells come to the Bell Place

Pieces of the S/2 of SW/4 of Section 22 were sold for appreciable amounts of money in 1864 (Documents no. 1½, no. 2, no. 3), 1868 (Document no. 5),  and 1879 (Document no. 10).  In 1881 the entire S/2 of SW/4 is sold for $600 (Document no. 15) and then less then half of that for $350 to Thomas Bell in 1887 (Document no. 22).  This clearly indicates that the property was logged in or about 1879.  Probably the land had ‘sap pine’, at first a less desireable pine than the high-end ‘cork pine’, Northern White Pine, but later cut extensively and profitably.[40]  As David Ward writes,

 “A man by the name of Coffin, a hardy Main lumberman accompanied me up the main branch of the Tittabawassee some eighty miles from Saginaw City to Township number 19 North of Range 1 West. In this region there was then a vast forest of sap pine, and a very few forties of cork pine which I selected, and a little of the best bull sap, as my patrons would only purchase cork and good bull sap pine. Let me say here that ninety-nine hundredths of the pine timber originally in Michigan was sap and Norway pine, but mostly sap, and the cork pine was generally in scattered patches, not large in extent, and usually located toward the headwaters of the various pine timber streams. If I had been permitted at that stage of the pine land exploring business to have also selected sap pine, I could have easily chosen hundreds of thousands of acres, usually in large bodies, which were afterwards located by other parties not so particular, and which were eventually worth more money per acre than the cork pine I did select on account of the comparatively large amount of sap pine on a lot. Consequently I did much tedious travelling and exploring about the headwaters of the various long pine timber rivers on both peninsulas and in Wisconsin, resulting in the selection and location of a comparatively small acreage of pine land from what I would have done if I had been permitted by my patrons before the pine lands were "gobbled up." Again, sap pine was usually found in large bodies from the mouths of the rivers up, occupying largely the middle regions of the streams, easy of access, and cheaply explored, with much less labor. I had to travel up through the most of these large sap pine tracts in going up and down the various rivers without selecting any of them. Yet all the lands I explored and that I and others bought in these usually small cork pine tracts amounted to some one hundred and twenty thousands acres, in the aggregate, in Michigan and Wisconsin. No other person ever explored and selected over a twentieth part of this amount of cork pine land in these States but many explored and selected many acres of sap and yellow pine. In subsequent years, when I explored for myself only, I selected and purchased some sap pine lands and a few lots of yellow or Norway pine. The trouble was I had little or no money myself to by land with, and had to depend on a commission allowing me but a small part of the cork pine lands which I explored. During the few years of the "pine land craze" the railroad, the "Soo" Canal and other land grants, and actual purchases going on, a large part of the desirable pine tracts were rapidly bought up, or covered by the land grants.[41]

This seems to describe the middle reaches of the South Branch of the Tobacco River, where the Bell Place is situated.  The first plat map we have indicates very heavy holdings by the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad and by the Soo Canal Company, just as Ward indicates.[42]  David Ward scouted and logged this area between 1860 and 1875 (see above).   Probably, since the logging of the Bell Place area seems to be in the late 1870’s, the pine there was this less desirable ‘sap pine’. 

In correspondence of October 19, 1967, Kate Bell Knapp, daughter of Thomas Bell, writes about their coming to the Bell Place:

My folks, your maternal grandparents [Thomas Kelly Bell and his wife, Margaret Lawson Bell] came from London, Ontario, Canada in January of 1883.  [They m]anaged a large farm for a Mr. Rust, near Saginaw[43] then in 1888 bought a place in Clare Co. built a substantial log house and moved in.  The neighbors for miles around helped with the laying of the logs and stayed to the work til the roof was on.  “Help one another” was pioneer fashion.  Mother furnished abundance of food and all were happy working together.

The place was actually bought on May 10, 1887.  It was 68 acres, from Athey Avenue to the Tobacco River, fronting on Colonville Road.  Kate was not born in the log house (December 22, 1886), but her sister Mae was (November 28, 1888).   Presumably there was a lag between when the property was purchased and when the log house was built.

 

The Log House

There were probably white pine still in the area, large enough for a log house.  A few miles to the north and east, the Joseph Kauls, who came to the area in 1889, still had white pine to cut along with an assortment of hardwoods to cut in their ‘cedar swamp’.  From Judy Lessard’s history of the Kauls:

The wooded, swampy areas of Sheridan Township were of no use to the lumber barons, but to the farmers who followed, the swamps provided lumber for their buildings, fences, firewood, as well as for cash income. As the farmers cleared their fields, they made good use of the small trees and stumps left behind by the lumbermen. Small trees were used for wood. Some farmers harvested wood from the taller stumps for shingles. Many farmers lined their fields with stumps they had pulled. They got the stumps out of the way and built themselves fences at the same time.

EARL [Kaul]

"We had plenty of timber on our land that we made good use of. There was a lot of timber left from the lumbering era, that dad and Grandpa cut as they cleared the land. There had been a stand of trees north and east of the buildings, consisting of maple, hemlock and beech. We cleared all of these trees out and planted crops there. Of course there was the Cedar Swamp. We called it the "Cedar" Swamp, but it actually contained a variety of virgin timber such as white birch, hemlock, tamarack, cedar and white pine. Oh, it had lovely white pine. It had a lot more pine and tamarack in it when I was a boy, but we about lumbered it all out. To see it today, it has a second growth now of birch, maple and other hardwoods.” [44]

It is possible that there were pine of this sort left in the lowlands along the Tobacco River on the Bell Place, but we’ll never know for sure.


Power of Attorney of March 18, 1889 (Document no. 23)

Mary E. Barnard, wife of Arthur Barnard, assigns Power of Attoruney to Arthur F. Lewis.

 

No. 26: Mortgage of May 13, 1891

J.A. Livingston appears in the Census of 1880 in Lapeer, Michigan, as 14 years old and with a sister Alice J. Knapp, age 16; the mother is Mary L. Livingston; the father John J. Livingston.[45]  Lapeer is south of Flint, near Chesaning, where Lyle Knapp’s family came from.  In 1870 he was also in Lapeer (West Branch) with same wife and Alice and John A..  Canada is his origin; Alice at age 6 is listed as Canada as well, so he had immigrated in the periods after 1864.  His worth in 1870 is given as $800/$140.[46]  But there would be no relationship at this early date between the Knapps and the Bells.

 

Deed of October 23, 1937:

Union Drilling and Producing Company, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan releases all Oil and Gas rights to Wallace W. and Evelyn Bell on the 68 acres of the Bell Place.

 

Deed of April 26, 1944:

Abstract of Title with all previous activity, back to Charles Merrill.

 

Deed of May 3, 1944:

Letter of Joseph K. Naumes, Attorney-at-Law, Clare, Michigan affirming that title to the Bell Place belongs to Wallace W. Bell.  Undischarged mortgages given as Abs. Entries #16, #26, #27, and #33.  (Apparently mortgages #16, #26, #27 have been discharged—they are over fifteen years old—but Naumes found no record of this. Entry  #33  mortgage “is merged in the fee title vested in the morgagee at Entry #37”.)No other liens.  Abs. Entry #52 “discloses oil and gas Lease to be hald by Union Drilling and Producing Company.”  Naumes declares the title ‘now marketable”. 

 

Deed of June 20, 1944:

 

 

Deed of August 29, 1944:

Mortgage taken out by Sidney R. Court on the Bell Place with Citizen’s State Bank.  Discharged April 30, 1946 (see below).

 

Deed of August 30, 1944:

Warranty Deed of April 24, 1944 transferring from Wallace W. Bell and Evelyn B. Bell, his wife, to John W. Bell and Grace Bell, his wife, the Bell Place, with “all right, title and interest in and to an undivided one-half of all oil, gas and other minerals which may be situated in, on and under said land, together with the usual right of ingress and egress for the purpose of exploring for, mining for and removing same from said land”

 

Deed of August 30, 1944:

Warranty Deed of July 7, 1944 transferring from John W. Bell and Grace Bell, his wife, to Sidney R. Court the Bell Place excepting “all right, title and interest in and to an undivided one-half of all oil, gas and other minerals which may be situated in, on and under said land, together with the usual right of ingress and egress for the purpose of exploring for, mining for and removing same from said land, which reserved interest is now owned by Wallace Bell and wife.”

 

Deed of March 8, 1946:

Power of Attorney executed by Sidney R. Court giving Power to John W. Bell.  Two documents, the original and a copy.

 

Deed of April 30, 1946:

Warranty Deed transferring property from Sidney R. Court to Patrick J. Walters and wife EXCEPT “all right, title and interest in and to an undivided one-half of all oil, gas and other minerals which may be situated in, on and under said land, together with the usual right of ingress and egress, said royalty interest having been previously reserved by one Wallace Bell and wife.

 

Deed of April 30, 1946:

Discharge of Mortgage: Citizen’s State Bank to Sid



[1] During the Iroquois wars in the second half of the 17th century the lower peninsula of Michigan was abandoned. The repopulation in the early 1700's brought different groups back in. So prior to 1650 Saginaw was what it says "Sauk-town". But in the repopulation Ojibwes and Ottawas came down from the north and none of the Sauk-Fox-Kickapoo-Mascouten peoples who had dominated the southern half of Michigan's lower peninsula ever returned. (You do know that Sauk-Fox-Kickapoo-Mascouten is a single mutually intelligible language with only very slight dialect differences.) Potawatomis came back in from the Chicago area, but never made it back, as a group, to the Grand Traverse Bay area they had occupied since they split from the rest of the Ojibwes in the 1200's. Instead because of government pressure in the early 1800's (including some bands being marched away at gun point) those that didn't go to Kansas and Oklahoma, simply evaporated into a diaspora that left numerous Potawatomi families on just about every Ojibwe/Chippewa reserve and reservation in Michigan and the adjacent regions of Ontario.  [From Richard Rhodes, Professor of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, in correspondence.]       

[2] Meek Timber Battleground 23-28.

[3] Meek, Timber Battlegraound 30-31.

[4] Meek, Timber Battlegraound 31.

[5] Meek, Timber Battlegraound 33 states that this chieftain was mentioned in an Indian treaty of 1826.

[6] Meek, Timber Battlegraound 37-38.

[7] “Joseph Treat was a soldier, born in Bangor, Maine, 8 December, 1775; died there, 27 February, 1853, became a civil engineer, but was commissioned captain in the 21st United States infantry on 12 March, 1812. Owing to the envy of some of his superior officers, he was accused of cowardice at the battle of Chippewa, 5 July, 1814 [in Upper Canada, near Lake Ontario] ; but upon trial he was honorably acquitted, none of his accusers appearing against him. He was mustered out in 1815, in 1817 and 1818 was a member of the general court of Massachusetts, and in 1820 of the Maine constitutional convention. He afterward became brigadier-general in the state militia. General Treat published a pamphlet entitled " The Vindication of Captain Joseph Treat, late of the 21st United States Infantry, against the Atrocious Calumnies Comprehended in Major-General Brown's Official Report of the Battle of Chippeway" (Philadelphia, 1815).”  Source: http://www.famousamericans.net/roberttreat/]

[8] The 21st was given Connecticut as its recruitment base: http://members.tripod.com/umbrigade/articles/anatomy.html

Connecticut resources: Research Guide to War of 1812 Sources at the Connecticut State Library

The following sources are suggested. The materials may be consulted at the Connecticut State Library but are not available on interlibrary loan.

Published Materials
Record of Service of Connecticut Men in the War of the Revolution, War of 1812, and Mexican War. Hartford, 1889 [CSL call number: HistRef D Ad44 res].

An Index of Veterans of Connecticut During the Years, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1816, War of 1812. 2 volumes. 1964 [CSL call number HistRef E 351.32 .N38].

White, Virgil. Index to War of 1812 Pension Files. 3 volumes. Waynesboro, TN: National Historic Publishing Company, 1989 [CSL call number HistRef E 359.4 .W45 1989].

21ST INFANTRY REGIMENT

A Working Bibliography of MHI Sources

GEN/MISC

Busch, George B.  Duty:  The Story of the 21st Infantry Regiment.   Sendai, Japan:  Hyappan, 1953.

                207 p.  #603-21.1953/2.

Cronin, Robert M.  "JRTC to JUST CAUSE:  A Case Study of Light Infantry Training."  AWC

                Student Paper, 1991.  38 p.  Arch.

                                                5/21st.

The Gimlet Heritage:  1862‑1953.  Sendai, 1953? 18 p.  #603-21.1953.

Hampton, Celwyn E.  History of the Twenty‑First US Infantry from 1812 to 1863.   Columbus, OH:

                Miller, 1911.  221 p.  #603-21.1911.

Kolb, Richard K.  "First to Fight in Korea...Last Infantry Unit in Vietnam."  Vietnam  (Feb 1991):

                pp. 8 & 54-56.  Per.

Mahon, John K., & Danysh, Romana.  Infantry, Vol. 1:  Regular Army.  In the official

Army Lineage Series.  Wash, DC:  CMH, 1972.  pp. 441-57.  UA28M352.Ref.

                                                Unit lineage & honors.

Russell, Martin B.  Illustrated Review, Twenty‑First Infantry, United States Army, Fort Logan,

                Colorado, Embracing an Historical Sketch of the Movements and Operations of

                the Regiment Since Organization.... Denver:  Medley & Russell, 1909.  60 p.  #603-21.1909.

Sawicki, James A.  Infantry Regiments of the US Army.  Dumfries, VA:  Wyvern, 1981.  pp. 94-95.

                #603-1.1981.Ref.

General History of the Unit

Smith, Judson M., & Coulter, Carlton.  The Story of a Regiment:  The Twenty‑First United States

                Infantry.  Honolulu:  Advertising Pub, 1940.  147 p.  #603-21.1940.

U.S. Army.  Forces in the Far East.  Mil Hist Sect.  A Brief History of the 21st Infantry Regiment.

                Japan: 1954.  15 p.  #603-21.1954.

U.S. Army.  21st Inf Regt.  The Gimlet, 1862‑1941.  n.p., 1941.  58 p.  #603-21.1941.

___.   Gimlet, 1862‑1952:  Ninety Years of Duty, the Twenty‑First Infantry Regiment.  Sendai,

                Japan:  Hyappan, 1952.  ca 30 p.

19TH CENTURY

Rodenbough, Theophilus F., & Haskin, William W.  The Army of the United States:  Historical

                Sketches....  NY:  Maynard, Merrill, 1896.  pp. 673-79. UA25A76.1896.Ref.

 

[9] An Elizabeth Shepard married a Stephan Page in Caswell County, NC, 0n 11 January, 1832: http://www.rootsweb.com/~nccaswel/marriages/mb-b9.htm.  But this can’t be ‘our’ Stephen Page, as he must have been born ~1790.

[10] Source: http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&db=lantrac%2c&gsfn=stephen&gsln=page&sx=&gsco=2%2cUnited+States&gspl=1%2cAll+States&year=1790&yearend=1850&sbo=0&rank=0&prox=1&ti=0&ti.si=0&gss=angs-d&o_iid=21416&o_lid=21416&o_it=21416&fh=0&recid=536443&recoff=1+2+13

[11] Year: 1850; Census Place: Not Stated, Caswell, North Carolina; Roll: M432_623; Page: 200; Image: 402.

[12] Ward Autobiography p. 117.

[13] David Ward’s Autobiography p. 63.  Source: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~fayfamily/davidwardautobiography.html

[14] Ward p. 65.

[15] David Ward’s Autobiography pp. 68-71.  Source: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~fayfamily/davidwardautobiography.html

[16] Lessard XII-1.

[17] A quit claim deed is a type of deed where a grantor, a person who owns an interest in a property, transfers all his interests to someone else. The grantor offers no guarantees about the title to the recipient, who is called the grantee.

A quit claim deed is often used to clear up problems with a title or when someone wants to use a simple method to give up all interests in a property.

Quit Claim Deed Uses

That puts a "cloud" or "defect" on the title, two terms that indicate the current owner isn't the only person with ownership rights in the property. The mistake is corrected by asking the previous owner to sign a quit claim deed that transfers all rights in the property to the current owner.

Quit Claim Limitations

A quit claim transfers only the rights of the person signing the deed. It does not guarantee that other people don't have an interest in the property. If there are other owners, their ownership is not affected by the quit claim.

Source: http://homebuying.about.com/cs/realestateglossary/g/quitclaim_deed.htm

[18] Year: 1860; Census Place: Bradley, Penobscot, Maine; Roll: M653_445; Page: 0; Image: 166.

[19] Year: 1870; Census Place: East Saginaw Ward 2, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: M593_701; Page: 134; Image: 274.

[20] Year: 1880; Census Place: East Saginaw, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: T9_602; Family History Film: 1254602; Page: 198.2000; Enumeration District: 300; Image: 0063.

[21] A general warranty deed is a type of deed where the grantor (seller) guarantees that he or she holds clear title to a piece of real estate and has a right to sell it to you. The guarantee is not limited to the time the grantor owned the property—it extends back to the property's origins.

Important portions of a general warranty deed include,

That guarantee might or might not be helpful, because the grantor may be dead or unable to follow through on the promise if title problems are found in the future.

Source: http://homebuying.about.com/cs/realestateglossary/g/generalwarranty.htm

[22] Meek, Timber Battlegraound 66.

[23] His wife is given as Ann M., not Ann W. as on the deed number 5 (1868).  Year: 1860; Census Place: Bangor Ward 1, Penobscot, Maine; Roll: M653_447; Page: 0; Image: 168.

[24]The most widespread activity in Michigan though and the one which created the largest number of millionaires, was lumbering and dealing in pine lands. David Whitney, the richest man of Michigan made most of his fortune in pine lands, before investing a large part in Detroit real estate. Other Detroit lumber millionaires included : William C. Yawkey, whose grandson Thomas Austin Yawkey would move to Boston and own the Red Socks; Russell Alexander Alger, who would succeed James McMillan in the U.S. Senate, and his partner Martin S. Smith; Thomas Witherell Palmer, who was in business with his father-in-law Charles P. Merrill of Saginaw and his wife Lizzie, Merrill’s daughter; Simon J. Murphy, whose heirs controlled the Pacific Lumber Company for decades; Francis Frederick Palms, who inherited a lumber fortune from his father, which he shared with his half-sister Clotilde (Palms) Book, whose mother was a Campau; and David Ward, a cousin of Eber Brock Ward.” Source: http://www.raken.com/american_wealth/encyclopedia/comment_1892.asp  Avery neighbors: Year: 1870; Census Place: Detroit Ward 1, Wayne, Michigan; Roll: M593_712; Page: 40; Image: 80.

[25] http://www.ci.green-bay.wi.us/geninfo/mayors_past/mayor_murphy_o.html

[26] Year: 1850; Census Place: Bradley, Penobscot, Maine; Roll: M432_264; Page: 267; Image: 534.

[27] Year: 1860; Census Place: Port Huron Ward 2, St Clair, Michigan; Roll: M653_559; Page: 0; Image: 272.  Newell’s name is misspelled as ‘Newhall’.

[28] Year: 1870; Census Place: Detroit Ward 1, Wayne, Michigan; Roll: M593_712; Page: 40; Image: 80.

[29] Year: 1880; Census Place: Detroit, Wayne, Michigan; Roll: T9_610; Family History Film: 1254610; Page: 556.3000; Enumeration District: 270; Image: 0851.

[30] Year: 1880; Census Place: East Saginaw, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: T9_602; Family History Film: 1254602; Page: 198.2000; Enumeration District: 300; Image: 0063.

[31] Stewart White (1873–1946), American author and conservationist, wrote The Blazed Trail (1902) .  He writes: “An official, called the Inspector, is supposed to report such stealings, after which another official is to prosecute. Aside from the fact that the danger of discovery is practically zero in so wild and distant a country, it is fairly well established that the old-time logger found these two individuals susceptible to the gentle art of "sugaring." The officials, as well as the lumberman, became rich. If worst came to worst, and investigation seemed imminent, the operator could still purchase the land at legal rates, and so escape trouble. But the intention to appropriate was there, and, to confess the truth, the whitewashing by purchase needed but rarely to be employed. I have time and again heard landlookers assert that the old Land Offices were rarely "on the square," but as to that I cannot, of course, venture an opinion. “  Source: http://www.online-literature.com/stewart-white/blazed-trail/16/

[32] Year: 1870; Census Place: East Saginaw Ward 2, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: M593_701; Page: 134; Image: 274.

[33] Year: 1860; Census Place: Saginaw, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: M653_558; Page: 0; Image: 142.

[34] Meek, Timber Battlegraound 179.

[35] http://lib.umflint.edu/archives/Crapo.html

[36] http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mi/county/lapeer/gen/ch9/crapo2.html

[37] Year: 1880; Census Place: Saginaw, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: T9_602; Family History Film: 1254602; Page: 100.2000; Enumeration District: 316; Image: 0691.

[38] Year: 1880; Census Place: Saginaw, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: T9_602; Family History Film: 1254602; Page: 78.4000; Enumeration District: 314; Image: 0647. per Ancestry.com.

[39] Year: 1880; Census Place: Center, Union, Indiana; Roll: T9_316; Family History Film: 1254316; Page: 43.2000; Enumeration District: 49; Image: 0089. per Ancestry.com.  There is also an Arthur Banard from Leslie, Ingram County, MI in the 1880 Census: Year: 1880; Census Place: Leslie, Ingham, Michigan; Roll: T9_583; Family History Film: 1254583; Page: 440.4000; Enumeration District: 134; Image: 0227.  He is listed as ‘sinigle’ in 1880.

[40] ‘Cork pine’ is Northern White Pine which has a rough bark, dense heartwood growth, and high buoyancy (hence the name, ‘cork’ pine).  Older stands of the pine could run to 150-200 feet tall and three feet in diameter.  The dense conditions of the pine forest, which required the trees to grow up rather than out, led to the density—often 12-18 growth rings per inch.  ‘Sap pine’ or ‘Bull-sap pine’ has fine bark and more sap wood (i.e., the wood nearer the edge of the log, outside the heartwood) than ‘cork pine’.  It is heavier than ‘cork pine’ and so does not float down the rivers as effortlessly.  It is not clear to me which varieties are included in the common term, ‘sap pine’.  I would guess that it encompasses the other main pine varieties found with Northern White Pine, i.e., Norway Pine, Jack Pine, and Red Pine.  For technical descriptions, including density/buoyancy, see Soft Woods of North America by Henry A. Alden: http://www.rmmn.org/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr102.pdf

[41] Ward Autobiography pp. 65-67

[42] Meek, Michigan’s Timber Battlefield, between pp. 164 and 165 has maps of each of the townships of Clare County with the property distribution at the time of organization.  The map of Sheridan Township, organized in 1870, shows the extensive holdings of the Canal Company, the railroad, and major lumber barons such as Charles Merrill, who is shown as owing the land where the Bell Place sits, even though that land had been sold by him in 1859 and 1864 (Documents no. 1½ and 2).

[43] Amasa Rust, a very rich lumberman, and other Rusts lived in Saginaw, East Saginaw, and Birch Run in 1870 and 1880: Censuses of 1870 and 1880.  The date of working on Mr. Rust’s farm is not confirmed by the Census records.  In the 1900 census Kate (born 1886) and John (born 1884) are both listed as having been born in Canada.

[44] Lessard XVI-1.

[45] Year: 1880; Census Place: Lapeer, Lapeer, Michigan; Roll: T9_589; Family History Film: 1254589; Page: 291.3000; Enumeration District: 171; Image: 0589.

[46] Year: 1870; Census Place: North Branch, Lapeer, Michigan; Roll: M593_684; Page: 258; Image: 517.